Developed by Marilyn P. Carlson, Bernard Madison, Richard D. West
|Purpose||To assess the effectiveness of precalculus level instruction (developed for math classes, but can be used in physics) or to be used as a placement test for entry into calculus.|
|Focus||Mathematics Content knowledge (function concept, exponential functions, trigonometric functions)|
|Level||Graduate, Upper-level, Intermediate, Intro college|
This is the highest level of research validation, corresponding to all seven of the validation categories below.
Research Validation Summary
Based on Research Into:
- Student thinking
- Student interviews
- Expert review
- Appropriate statistical analysis
- At multiple institutions
- By multiple research groups
- Peer-reviewed publication
The questions the CRR were developed based on a taxonomy of topics that a group of experts found important to assess. The multiple-choice answer choices on the CCR were developed based students interview responses to open-ended questions and tested with subsequent student interviews. The CCR was given to over 600 students at four universities, and appropriate statistical analyses of reliability and validity were conducted and reasonable values found for each. CCR results are published in one peer-reviewed article.
- M. Carlson, B. Madison, and R. West, A Study of Students’ Readiness to Learn Calculus, Int. J. Res. Undergrad. Math. Educ. 1 (2), 209 (2015).
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