Enhancing Learning by Developing Process Skills in STEM (ELIPSS)

Developed by Renee Cole, Juliette Lantz, Suzanne Ruder, Gilbert, Reynders and Courtney Stanford

Purpose To assess students’ process skills in active learning undergraduate STEM classroom to support formative assessment.
Format Rubric
Duration N/A min
Focus Scientific reasoning (Critical thinking, Team work, Management, Information processing, Interpersonal communication, Problem solving, Oral/written communication, Metacognition)
Level Upper-level, Intermediate, Intro college

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Example items from the ELIPSS critical thinking rubric:

R. Cole, J. Lantz, S. Ruder, G. Reynders, and C. Stanford, Enhancing Learning by Assessing More than Content Knowledge, presented at the ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2018.
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Silver Validation
This is the second highest level of research validation, corresponding to at least 5 of the validation categories below.

Research Validation Summary

Based on Research Into:

  • Relevant theory and/or data

Studied Using:

  • Iterative use of rubric
  • Inter-rater reliability
  • Expert review

Research Conducted:

  • At multiple institutions
  • By multiple research groups
  • Peer-reviewed publication

These rubrics went through extensive validation: rubrics were reviewed by researchers, practitioners, and students, iteratively tested in multiple environments (at least 3 courses, at 3 levels, and at 3 institutions), and inter-rater reliability analysis was done with an adjacent agreement score of greater than 80%.


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Typical Results

Because these are rubrics, results vary, so there are no “typical results.” In the papers the developers have published, they give some examples of scores from a variety of contexts. The distribution of scores ranges from 0 and 5, with most students scoring 3s and 4s.

There are two versions of the ELIPSS Rubrics for each process skill: Analytic and Feedback. The analytic rubric is a “typical” rubric to assess students’ aptitude on a range of process skills. The feedback rubric assesses the same skills as analytic rubrics, but they include more detail such as the types of behaviors that each process skill embodies as well as feedback suggestions for students.