Four-tier Geometrical Optics Test (FTGOT)

Developed by Derya Kaltakci

Purpose To assess misconceptions in geometric optics.
Format Pre/post, Multiple-choice
Duration 50 min
Focus Waves / Optics Content knowledge (plane mirrors, spherical mirrors, lenses)
Level Intro college
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Sample questions from the FTGOT:

FTGOT Implementation and Troubleshooting Guide

Everything you need to know about implementing the FTGOT in your class.

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D. Kaltakci-Gurel, A. Eryilmaz, and L. McDermott, Development and application of a four-tier test to assess pre-service physics teachers’ misconceptions about geometrical optics, Res. Sci. & Technol. Educ. 35 (2), 238 (2017).
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Silver Validation
This is the second highest level of research validation, corresponding to at least 5 of the validation categories below.

Research Validation Summary

Based on Research Into:

  • Student thinking

Studied Using:

  • Student interviews
  • Expert review
  • Appropriate statistical analysis

Research Conducted:

  • At multiple institutions
  • By multiple research groups
  • Peer-reviewed publication

The multiple-choice questions on the FTGOT were developed based on the research literature, the developers experience teaching these topics and open-ended interviews with students. Open-ended versions of the questions were reviewed by experts and given to students. Results were used to create the multiple-choice options, and which were tested with students and further revised and reviewed by experts. This final version was administered to over 200 students at 13 Turkish institutions and appropriate statistical analysis of reliability, difficulty and discrimination were conducted and reasonable values found. Overall, the FTGOT has been given to over 200 students and results published in one dissertation.

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Typical Results

The COR1-4 score for 243 pre-service physics teachers at 13 Turkish universities: 2.65 +/- 2.17 (out of 20). See "How to Score" for more information on the COR1-4 score. 

The latest version of the FTGOT, released in 2012, is version 1.