Motivation Scale towards Physics Learning (MSPL)

Developed by Elif Ince, Hilal Çagap, Yasemin Deneri

Purpose To determine the motivation levels of undergraduate pre-service science teachers towards physics learning (can also be used with any college level science students).
Format Agree/disagree
Duration 30 min
Focus Beliefs / Attitudes (self-efficacy, appreciation reward, value of learning physics)
Level Intro college

more details
Silver Validation
This is the second highest level of research validation, corresponding to at least 5 of the validation categories below.

Research Validation Summary

Based on Research Into:

  • Student thinking

Studied Using:

  • Student interviews
  • Expert review
  • Appropriate statistical analysis

Research Conducted:

  • At multiple institutions
  • By multiple research groups
  • Peer-reviewed publication

The questions on the MSPL were developed based on a review of literature. Over 100 questions were drafted to probe many different aspects of motivation. The questions were tested with students, reviewed by experts, and the number of questions reduced to 74. The questions were given to over 600 pre-service teachers at several institutions. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, and the final 22 items were identified. These 22 questions were given to over 400 pre-service teachers, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the results. Statistical analyses of realibility, discrimination and difficulty found reasonable values.


  • E. Ince, H. Çagap, and Y. Deneri, Development and Validation of Motivation Scale towards Physics Learning. Inter. Jour. of Phys. & Chem. Ed., 12(4), 61-74 (2020).

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Download the MSPL answer key.

Typical Results

Typical results for n=631 pre-service teachers at a university in Turkey (Ince et al. 2020). 

The latest version of the MSPL, released in 2020, is version 1. The MSPL was developed and validated in Turkish and translated to English.