Developed by: Curtis Hieggelke, David Maloney, Stephen Kanim, Thomas O'Kuma
middle schoolhigh schoolintro collegeinter-mediateupper levelgrad school other
What? Short activities that help students apply concepts and address known difficulties. Activities are designed so that they cannot be solved using "plug-and-chug."
Ten TIPER formats (more detailed descriptions):
Bar Chart Tasks — these require student to draw histograms for specified quantities of a situation.
Changing Representation Tasks — given one representation, e.g., a free-body diagram, students generate an alternative representation, e.g., the Newton’s second law equation.
Comparison Tasks — these ask the student to determine which of two situations has a greater value for a quantity, or if the two situations have the same value for quantity.
Conflicting Contentions Tasks — these tasks present two or three (usually natural language) statements about a situation and the goal is to decide which, if any, of the statements is correct.
Linked Multiple-Choice Tasks — in these the same question, with the same set of answer possibilities, is asked about a sequence of variations for a situation.
Qualitative Reasoning Tasks — these tasks ask about how a qualitative variation of a situation affects the behavior of the system.
Ranking Tasks — ask students to rank a set of physical situations based on the magnitude of a single characteristic.
Troubleshooting Tasks — these require the identification of the acknowledged error(s) in a contention, representation or analysis.
What, if Anything, is Wrong Tasks — these are similar to troubleshooting tasks except that there may not be anything wrong.
Working Backwards Tasks — these usually have one or more equations as the starting point with the goal being a description or drawing of a physical situation.
Student skills developed
- Conceptual understanding
Instructor effort required
- Cost for students
For suggestions about how to develop your own TIPERs, see Maloney, "Developing Conceptual Exercises", Winter 1994/ 95 CaFD Newsletter.
TIPERs are published in a series of books by Pearson (you can download the instructor's guide from the resources tab in each of the links below):
This is the lowest level of research validation, corresponding to at least one of the validation categories below.
Research Validation Summary
Based on Research Into:
- theories of how students learn
- student ideas about specific topics
Demonstrated to Improve:
- conceptual understanding
- problem-solving skills
- lab skills
- beliefs and attitudes
- retention of students
- success of underrepresented groups
- performance in subsequent classes
- cycle of research and redevelopment
- student interviews
- classroom observations
- analysis of written work
- research at multiple institutions
- research by multiple groups
- peer-reviewed publication