Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

Developed by: Ian D. Beatty & William J. Gerace

middle schoolhigh schoolintro collegeinter-mediateupper levelgrad school   other

 Intro College Calculus-based
calc based
 Intro College Algebra-based
alg based
 Intro College Conceptual

Mechanics  Electricity / Magnetism  Waves / Optics  Thermal / Statistical  Modern / Quantum +3
Lecture - Large (30+ students)  Lecture - Small (<30 students)  Recitation/Discussion Session  Lab  Studio

What? A pedagogy for using clickers to accomplish highly interactive, student-centered science instruction, focusing on using provocative, meaty questions to engage students in extended whole-class discussion as a context and vehicle for learning.

Example materials


Student skills developed

Designed for:
  • Conceptual understanding
  • Making real-world connections
Can be adapted for:
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Metacognition

Instructor effort required

  • Medium

Resources required

  • Clickers / polling method
  • Projector

Intro Article: I. Beatty and W. Gerace, Technology-enhanced formative assessment: A research-based pedagogy for teaching science with classroom response technology, J. Sci. Educ. Tech. 18 (2), 146 (2009).
This is the lowest level of research validation, corresponding to at least one of the validation categories below.

Research Validation Summary

Based on Research Into:

  • theories of how students learn
  • student ideas about specific topics

Demonstrated to Improve:

  • conceptual understanding
  • problem-solving skills
  • lab skills
  • beliefs and attitudes
  • attendance
  • retention of students
  • success of underrepresented groups
  • performance in subsequent classes

Studied using:

  • cycle of research and redevelopment
  • student interviews
  • classroom observations
  • analysis of written work
  • research at multiple institutions
  • research by multiple groups
  • peer-reviewed publication


PhysPort Data Explorer

Screenshot of the Data Explorer
Explore assessment data