What does the research say?
This is the second highest level of research validation, corresponding to:
- at least 1 of the "based on" categories
- at least 2 of the "demonstrated to improve" categories
- at least 4 of the "studied using" categories
Research Validation Summary
Based on Research Into:
- theories of how students learn
- student ideas about specific topics
Demonstrated to Improve:
- conceptual understanding
- problem-solving skills
- lab skills
- beliefs and attitudes
- retention of students
- success of underrepresented groups
- performance in subsequent classes
- cycle of research and redevelopment
- student interviews
- classroom observations
- analysis of written work
- research at multiple institutions
- research by multiple groups
- peer-reviewed publication
Research base behind the design of SCALE-UP
SCALE-UP was developed based on extensive research on the effectiveness of integrated learning environments such as Workshop Physics and Studio Physics (Wilson 1994, Hoellwarth et al. 2005), of research-based curricula for small group work in Physics (Meltzer and Thornton 2012) such as Tutorials in Introductory Physics and Context-Rich Problems, and of active learning methods (Johnson et al. 1981, Prince 2004) and social interaction (Astin 1994) in general. Before SCALE-UP, only small classes or recitation sections (typically less than 30 students) used curricula centered around students working in small groups on research-based activities. SCALE-UP was an attempt to "scale up" the successes of small integrated learning environments to classes of up to 100 students.
The structure of SCALE-UP also draws on results from Cooperative Group Problem-solving about how to structure and facilitate students working in small groups (Heller and Hollabaugh 1992), and Johnson, Johnson, and Smith's critical characteristics of successful cooperative learning: Positive interdependence, Individual accountability, Face-to-face interaction, Appropriate use of interpersonal skills, and Regular self-assessment of group functioning.
Research involved in the development of SCALE-UP
Research showing the effectiveness of SCALE-UP
Research on the use of SCALE-UP in different environments
- R. Beichner, The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project, in Research-Based Reform of University Physics, edited by E. Redish and P. Cooney, (American Association of Physics Teachers, College Park, 2007), Vol. 1.
- R. Beichner, The SCALE-UP Project: A Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs, 2008.
- R. Beichner, History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces, 2014.
- R. Beichner, L. Bernold, E. Burniston, P. Dail, R. Felder, J. Gastineau, M. Gjertsen, and J. Risley, Case study of the physics component of an integrated curriculum, Am. J. Phys. 67 (S1), S16 (1999).
- R. Beichner, J. Gaffney, and M. Kustusch, The Real Prize Inside: Learning About Science and Spectra from Cereal Boxes, Phys. Teach. 47 (10), 450 (2009).
- K. Foote, A. Knaub, C. Henderson, M. Dancy, and R. Beichner, Enabling and challenging factors in institutional reform: The case of SCALE-UP, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 12 (1), 0101031 (2016).
- K. Foote, X. Neumeyer, C. Henderson, M. Dancy, and R. Beichner, Diffusion of research-based instructional strategies: the case of SCALE-UP, Int. J. Sci. Educ. 1 (1), 1 (2014).
- J. Gaffney, E. Richards, M. Kustusch, L. Ding, and R. Beichner, Scaling up education reform, J. Coll. Sci. Teaching 37 (5), 48 (2008).
- C. Hoellwarth, M. Moelter, and R. Knight, A direct comparison of conceptual learning and problem solving ability in traditional and studio style classrooms, Am. J. Phys. 73 (5), 459 (2005).
- A. Knaub, K. Foote, C. Henderson, M. Dancy, and R. Beichner, Get a room: the role of classroom space in sustained implementation of studio style instruction, Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 3 (1), 1 (2016).
- V. Kuo and R. Beichner, Stars of the Big Dipper: A 3-D Vector Activity, Phys. Teach. 44 (3), 168 (2006).
- X. Neumeyer, K. Foote, R. Beichner, M. Dancy, and C. Henderson, Examining the diffusion of research-based instructional strategies using social network analysis: A case study of SCALE-UP, presented at the 121st ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, 2014.
- C. Wenning, Whiteboarding & Socratic dialogues: Questions & answers, J. Phys. Teach. Online 3 (1), (2005).